Genomic island PFGI-2 Genomic island 02, or PFGI-2, spans 16 8

Genomic island PFGI-2 Genomic island 02, or PFGI-2, spans 16.8

kb and has an average G+C content of 51.5%. It is flanked by imperfect 51-bp direct repeats, one of which partially overlaps with tRNALeu(6) and probably represents the attB site (see Additional file 10). Although P. fluorescens Pf-5 does not have a type III protein secretion pathway, approximately half of PFGI-2 (i.e. an 8.1-kb selleck screening library DNA segment spanning genes PFL_4977 to PFL_4980) closely resembles a gene cluster found in the exchangeable effector locus (EEL) of a tripartite type III secretion pathogeniCity island (T-PAI) from the plant pathogen P. viridiflava strain ME3.1b [58] (see Additional file 10). Even the presence of a putative phage integrase gene (PFL_4977) (see Additional files 5 and 10) and integration into tRNALeu immediately downstream of the tgt and queA genes is typical of T-PAI islands from P. viridiflava [58] and P. syringae [59]. In addition to T-PAI-like genes, PFGI-2 contains a putative phage-related MvaT-like (PFL_4981) transcriptional regulator, a superfamily II helicase (PFL_4979),

a putative nucleoid-associated protein (PFL_4983), and a putative nuclease (PFL_4984). None of the aforementioned homologues of PFGI-2 genes in P. viridiflava have been characterized experimentally to date, making in difficult to deduce the function, if any, of this genome region. It also is CDK inhibitors in clinical trials possible that PFGI-2 is inactive and simply represents a T-PAI-like Anidulafungin (LY303366) remnant anchored in the Pf-5 chromosome. Transposons of P. fluorescens Pf-5 Unlike the genomes of other Pseudomonas spp., that of P. fluorescens Pf-5 is devoid of IS elements and contains only one CDS (PFL_2698) that appears to encode a full-length transposase. Three other transposase-like CDSs (PFL_1553, PFL_3795, and PFL_2699) found in the Pf-5 genome contain frameshifts or encode truncated proteins. PFL_2698 and PFL_2699 encode IS66-like transposases and are found

within a large cluster (PFL_2662 through PFL_2716) of conserved hypothetical genes. Corrupted transposases encoded by PFL_1553 and PFL_3795 belong to the IS5 family and are associated with gene clusters encoding a putative filamentous hemagglutinin and prophage 06, respectively. Conclusion Recent analyses have revealed that most sequenced bacterial genomes contain prophages formed when temperate bacteriophages integrate into the host genome [60]. In addition to genes encoding phage-related functions, many prophages carry non-essential genes that can dramatically modify the phenotype of the host, allowing it to colonize or survive in new ecological niches [60, 61].

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