E. D. B. is on the Speaker’s Bureau: Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, received honoraria from Novartis and Grant Support by Sanofi-Pasteur and Intercell. C. G. has received an investigator initiated research grant from GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to influenza. A. W.-S. has been sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi-Pasteur, and Novartis to attend conferences and has received speaking honoraria. She is the Principal Investigator of a vaccine trial sponsored by Sanofi-Pasteur. In addition to the authors, members LGK-974 molecular weight of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network who contributed data (in descending order) are: Karin Leder, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne,
Australia; Hiroko Sagara, Yokohama Municipal Citizen’s Hospital, Yokohama, Japan; Shuzo Kanagawa, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Philippe Parola, Fabrice Simon, and Jean Delmont, Hôpital Nord, Marseille, France; Phyllis E. Kozarsky and Carlos Franco-Paredes, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Susan MacDonald,
Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China; Cecilia Perret and Francisca Valdivieso, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, www.selleckchem.com/products/ch5424802.html Santiago, Chile; Prativa Pandey, CIWEC Clinic Travel Medicine Center, Kathmandu, Nepal; Robert Kass, Travellers Medical and Vaccination Centres of Australia, Adelaide, Australia (December 1997–March 2001 only); Louis Loutan and François Chappuis, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Alejandra Gurtman, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA (October 2002–August 2005 only); Mogens Jensenius, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; DeVon C. Hale and Stefanie S. Gelman, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; and
Susan McLellan; Thymidine kinase Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA (December 1999–August 2005 only). “
“Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the rise in international travel over the last three decades, many travelers are at risk of HBV and HCV infection. This review focuses on the epidemiology of HBV and HCV in international travelers, the modes of transmission, and the prevention of infection in travelers. The risk of HBV and HCV infection varies widely and depends on the prevalence of the destination country, the duration of travel, and the activities undertaken while abroad. Travelers commonly undertake high-risk activities that place them at risk of both HBV and HCV infection. Poor uptake of preventative health measures and poor adherence to health recommendations are also common. The monthly incidence of HBV infection for long-term travelers to endemic countries ranges from 25 to 420 per 100,000 travelers. HBV infection can be prevented through timely vaccination of travelers. HBV vaccination is safe and efficacious with protective levels of antibodies achieved in >90% of recipients.