(C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli.
Methods and Results:
A previously this website reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxonomic specificity and sensitivity of qPCR assays targeting the rodA gene (rodA984) and two regions of the multi-copy 23S ribosomal RNA gene (EC23S and EC23S857). Experimental analyses of 28 culture collection strains representing E. coli and 21 related non-target species indicated that the uidA405 and rodA984 assays were both 100% specific for E. coli while the EC23S assay was only 29% specific. The EC23S857 assay
was only 95% specific due to detection of E. fergusonii. The uidA405, rodA984, EC23S and EC23S857 assays were 85%, 85%, 100% and 86% sensitive, respectively, in detecting 175 presumptive E. coli culture isolates from fresh, marine and waste water samples. In analyses of DNA extracts from 32 fresh, marine and waste water samples, the rodA984, EC23S and EC23S857 assays detected mean densities of target sequences at ratios of approximately 1 : 1, 243 : 1 and 6 : 1 compared with the mean densities detected by the uidA405 assay.
The EC23S assay was less specific for E. coli, whereas the rodA984 and EC23S857 assay taxonomic specificities and sensitivities were similar to those of the uidA405 gene assay.
Significance and Impact:
The EC23S857 assay has S63845 ic50 a lower limit of detection for E. coli cells than the uidA405 and rodA984 assays due to its multi-copy gene target and therefore provides greater analytical Bambuterol HCl sensitivity in monitoring for these faecal pollution indicators in environmental waters by qPCR methods.”
“The glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway mediates many responses to activation
of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, including modulation of some types of learning and memory. The glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway is modulated by GABAergic neurotransmission. Activation of GABA(A) receptors reduces the function of the pathway. Several neurosteroids modulate the activity of GABA(A) and/or NMDA receptors, suggesting that they could modulate the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. The aim of this work was to assess, by in vivo microdialysis, the effects of several neurosteroids with different effects on GABA(A) and NMDA receptors on the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo. To assess the effects of the neurosteroids on the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway, they were administered through the microdialysis probe before administration of NMDA and the effects on NMDA-induced increase in extracellular cGMP were analyzed. We also assessed the effects of the neurosteroids on basal levels of extracellular cGMP.