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“Weight gain induced by atypical antipsychotics causes a serious health concern in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. In the present study chronic treatment of female Wistar rats with olanzapine caused weight gain, but limited effect on food intake. A dramatic drug-induced morphological
change of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was observed, i.e. development of a pinkish coloration with the appearance of a “”fish egg”"-like texture. Histological examination revealed a massive increase in the proliferation of undifferentiated adipocytes. Such proliferation was detected as early as the third day after olanzapine treatment The changes progressed in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The proliferation of adipose tissue was detected in rats treated with olanzapine independent of increases in weight gain. Protein profiles of the adipose tissue were also altered by olanzapine. These results suggest that olanzapine-induced APR-246 ic50 weight gain may be not solely due to an effect on behavioural satiety. AZD3965 manufacturer The potential involvement of adipose neuronal input and proliferation are discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, especially in combat veterans. Existing functional neuroimaging
studies have provided important insights into the neural mechanisms of PTSD using various experimental paradigms involving trauma recollection or other forms of emotion provocation. However it is not clear whether the abnormal brain activity is specific to the mental processes related to the experimental tasks or reflects general patterns across different brain states. Thus, studying intrinsic spontaneous brain activity without the influence of external
RANTES tasks may provide valuable alternative perspectives to further understand the neural characteristics of PTSD. The present study evaluated the magnitudes of spontaneous brain activity of male US veterans with or without PTSD, with the two groups matched on age, gender, and ethnicity. Amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data driven analysis method, were calculated on each voxel of the resting state fMRI data to measure the magnitudes of spontaneous brain activity. Results revealed that PTSD subjects showed increased spontaneous activity in the amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and orbital frontal cortex, as well as decreased spontaneous activity in the precuneus, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and thalamus. Within the PTSD group, larger magnitudes of spontaneous activity in the thalamus, precuneus and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex were associated with lower re-experiencing symptoms. Comparing our results with previous functional neuroimaging findings, increased activity of the amygdala and anterior insula and decreased activity of the thalamus are consistent patterns across emotion provocation states and the resting state. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.