1c clearly shows bacteria adherent to the luminal surface of the

1c clearly shows bacteria adherent to the luminal surface of the sinus tissue in these

hydrated PD0332991 ic50 specimens (else the bacteria would simply float away). ‘(2) Direct examination of infected tissue shows bacteria living in cell clusters, or microcolonies, encased in an extracellular matrix’; aggregated bacteria in clusters are clearly demonstrated in Fig. 1c-f. ‘(3) The infection is confined to a particular location’. A defining feature of HS is that the process is confined to specific anatomic sites; despite years of chronic infection in this (and other) patients with HS, dissemination (e.g. sepsis) is extremely rare. ‘(4) The infection is difficult or impossible to eradicate with antibiotics, despite the fact that the responsible organisms

are susceptible to killing in the planktonic state’; it is well recognized that HS persists and recurs, despite the Selleckchem LY2835219 use of numerous different types of antibiotics, and in this patient, the disease also recurred after only brief periods of suppression with antibiotic usage. The recognition of HS as a biofilm disease then has clear implications for future investigations and therapies. Studies examining either the host tissues or bacterial participants in HS should recognize that a biofilm infection is the relevant paradigm, with the attendant changes in bacterial physiology and likely biofilm-elicited shifts in host tissue physiology. Novel antimicrobial agents

intended to treat HS ought to be effective not only against planktonic bacteria but also against biofilm bacteria for best success. Another interesting feature of HS is its tendency to appear in patients with Crohn’s disease (van der Zee et al., 2010). Because tumor necrosis factor Glutathione peroxidase alpha-inhibitors have had some success in the treatment of Crohn’s, they have also been trialed in patients with HS. Both etanercept and infliximab have been used in patients with HS, with a recent review finding that a positive treatment outcome was reported in 90/105 total patients (although the patient in this report was not responsive to etanercept) (Haslund et al., 2009). It seems paradoxical that these agents, which are anti-inflammatory and known to predispose to infection in other circumstances, should be meliorative in HS. One possible explanation is that the tissue damage that leads to the symptoms of HS is due not to the biofilm bacteria themselves, but to an exaggerated inflammatory response engendered by the biofilm that in the process destroys bystander tissue. Such a process would explain the natural history in HS of progressive destruction of host tissues in the affected sites with associated fibrosis.

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