N100 effects from CS onset processing overlap with differential P1 processing of the CS stimulus
after 50 ms, and so forth). Auditory MultiCS conditioning using ultrashort tones as CS that reveal their emotional meaning almost instantaneously, as in vision, address this methodological constraints of MEG/EEG research associated with the dynamic nature of acoustic stimuli (i.e. signal convolution of evoked neural responses). Bröckelmann et al. (2011) first applied auditory MultiCS conditioning involving intramodal learning of associations between multiple click-like tones and neutral, appetitive Entinostat and aversive emotional acoustic scenes. Neural click-tone processing was affected at time-intervals of the P20–50m (20–50 ms) and the N1m (100–130 ms). The emotion effect was localised to sensory, frontal and parietal cortex regions. As dominant effect, both emotion-associated CS stimulus groups (pleasant and unpleasant) evoked stronger neural processing than did neutrally associated tones; however, there was also a hemispheric preference with a relative dominance of aversion-associated CS on the right and approach-associated CS on the left side. As this study was the first of its type in the auditory
modality, we here tested whether the findings could be replicated and would generalise to cross-modal aversive MultiCS conditioning of multiple click-like tones with an electric shock as single UCS. We ultimately aimed at delivering converging evidence selleck kinase inhibitor across studies to strengthen our conclusions that auditory processing is modulated (i) rapidly after stimulus onset, during the N1m and the even earlier P20–50m time-interval, (ii) in a highly resolving manner with the capacity to differentiate a large number of click-like tones as a function of their associated affective significance after brief Interleukin-3 receptor learning and (iii) within a distributed frontal–parietal–temporal network attributable to the engagement of attention by emotionally salient tones. To this end, we adopted the MultiCS conditioning design and tested according hypotheses in a new set of subjects for electric shock conditioning. In sum, the
present results showed considerable overlap with, but also substantial differences from, the first study of auditory MultiCS conditioning. In the next paragraphs, we will discuss five aspects in more detail: first, the corresponding affect-specific N1m modulation; second, the hemispheric asymmetries in shock conditioning associated with preferential CS+ and CS− processing in the right and left hemisphere, respectively; third, the suggested underlying neural mechanisms; fourth, the lack of a significant modulation of the P20–50m component in the electric shock, as opposed to the auditory affective scene conditioning study; and fifth, the role of prefrontal cortex in emotion processing as revealed by MultiCS conditioning.