This early transient downregulation of CD62L in IFNAR−/− P14 cell

This early transient downregulation of CD62L in IFNAR−/− P14 cells may be explained by the fact that surface CD62L is shed rapidly upon activation 21 without reduction of CD62L transcripts which would lead to CD62L re-expression

after initial surface shedding. Consistent with the MPEC phenotype, IFNAR−/− P14 cells failed to downregulate CD127 and to upregulate KLRG1 by day 6 of infection and were antigen-experienced since they uniformly Vismodegib concentration expressed high levels of CD44 (data not shown). Similar results were obtained for WT and IFNAR−/− P14 cells in the draining LNs (Supporting Information Fig. 1A–D). Analysis of the relative SLEC and MPEC composition of the WT and IFNAR−/− P14 cell populations confirmed

that IFNAR−/− P14 cell differentiation was strongly biased toward the MPEC phenotype by day 6 post-infection, whereas WT P14 cells were distributed between an SLEC and MPEC phenotype (Fig. 2D). However, by day 60 post-infection, when memory P14 cells had formed, there was no longer a phenotypic difference LY294002 price between WT and IFNAR−/− P14 cells, supporting the notion that MPECs, giving rise to the memory population, were qualitatively not affected by the absence of type-I IFN signaling (Fig. 6C). Thus, IFNAR−/− P14 cells exhibited an augmented and accelerated MPEC phenotype (KLRG1low and CD127high) in sharp contrast to the pronounced effector phenotype (KLRG1high and CD127low) displayed by WT P14 cells (Fig. 2C). Taken together these data suggest that type-I Glutathione peroxidase IFN signaling is an important factor that promotes transition of CD8+ T cells toward an SLEC phenotype. Based on the finding that type-I IFN signaling is a major regulator of

the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells during LCMV infection 18–20, we aimed to exclude the possibility that IFNAR−/− P14 cells may initially form SLECs, which due to a lack of survival signals, are preferentially prone to undergo apoptosis. To this end, equal numbers of WT and IFNAR−/− P14 cells were CFSE labeled and transferred into WT hosts prior to co-infection with LCMV8.7 and VVG2 and their ability to divide and differentiate was analyzed in the spleen 2.5 days later. Both WT and IFNAR−/− P14 cells were initially activated and exhibited equal capacity to divide as shown by their CFSE dilution profile (Fig. 3A). Furthermore, by analyzing the phenotype of cells that have only undergone a few cell divisions (CFSE high) compared with cells that have undergone intermediate (CFSE mid) or high (CFSE low) numbers of cell divisions, we found that CD25 was significantly higher expressed on WT P14 cells in the CFSE high population compared with IFNAR−/− P14 cells, with these differences increasing with cell division. The opposite was observed for CD62L, where CD62L expression was higher on IFNAR−/− P14 cells compared with that of WT P14 cells in all stages of cell divisions (Fig. 3B).

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