Tractography based on high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (

Tractography based on high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is capable of overcoming this restriction. With compressed sensing (CS) techniques, HARDI acquisitions with a smaller number of directional measurements can be used, thus enabling the use of HARDI-based fiber tractography in clinical practice.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether HARDI+CS-based fiber

tractography improves the display of neuroanatomically complex pathways and in areas of disturbed diffusion properties.

METHODS: Six patients with gliomas in the vicinity of language-related areas underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging including a diffusion-weighted data set with 30 gradient directions. Additionally, functional magnetic resonance imaging for cortical language sites was obtained. Fiber tractography was performed with deterministic streamline algorithms based on DTI using 3 different software platforms. Additionally, tractography based on reconstructed diffusion signals using HARDI+CS was performed.

RESULTS: HARDI+CS-based tractography displayed more compact fiber bundles compared with the DTI-based results in all cases. In 3 cases, neuroanatomically plausible fiber bundles were displayed in the vicinity of tumor and peritumoral edema, which could not be traced on the basis of DTI. The curvature around the sylvian fissure was displayed properly in selleck chemicals llc CB-839 in vivo 6 cases and in only 2

cases with DTI-based tractography.

CONCLUSION: HARDI+CS seems to be a promising approach for fiber tractography in clinical practice for neuroanatomically complex fiber pathways and in areas of disturbed diffusion, overcoming the problem of long acquisition times.”
“Several lines of evidence implicate dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in opiate

dependence and withdrawal. Functional antagonists of glutamatergic system, including compounds acting on both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (group I mGlu receptor antagonists and group II mGlu receptor agonists), have been shown to decrease behavioural signs of opiate withdrawal in rodents. In the present study we analyzed an influence of group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, on opioid withdrawal syndrom, induced by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. We show, that ACPT-I significantly attenuated typical symptoms of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, after peripheral administration in C57BL/6J mice. These data indicate an important role of group III mGlu receptors in morphine withdrawal states and suggest that activation of group III mGlu receptors may reduce opiate withdrawal symptoms. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“While human cells express potent antiviral proteins as part of the host defense repertoire, viruses have evolved their own arsenal of proteins to antagonize them.

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