The respondents were those who were within certain provider netwo

The respondents were those who were within certain provider networks, and self-selected to complete the survey and, therefore, may not be reflective all deployed providers. No information on the number and type of providers who chose not to complete the survey were obtained. As a web-based survey, many frontline providers may not have had online computer access, although over one third reported being in Iraq at the time of the survey. Furthermore, the validity of the instrument used to measure knowledge of TD was not formally assessed, although it was developed

PKC signaling from a previously published survey and was pilot tested with a limited number of each provider type.9 Although there was anonymity in the survey, providers may not have accurately described what they most often do in a scenario similar to the ones described. The providers may have selected the choice that they felt was the most “correct” even though it is not what they tended to do in practice due to situational influences such as pressure from the patient for their preferred treatment. Also, the multiple response categories in various scenarios may have led to confusion as to the definitions of phases of TD, causing providers to choose incorrect management responses.

In addition, with the Selleckchem SB203580 general public health concern of increasing antibiotic resistance and the drive to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use within the US, many providers

may have biased their response toward less antibiotic use when this is not an adequate reflection of their actual practice. However, the results were generally concordant with the prior survey of Army physician assistants and information regarding specific treatments provided to troops who had sought care for treatment of diarrhea during recent deployments.1,9 Despite these study limitations the lack of knowledge that the providers displayed toward TD epidemiology was evident and there is room for improvement. This study may provide a Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II novel approach on how to query providers on targeting problem areas and where to focus education for TD. Training which focuses specifically on the deficiencies identified by this study may enhance the management and treatment of TD. The Department of Defense may benefit from actively disseminating resources on TD management and treatment, as well as further developing evidenced-based guidelines as new therapies and consensus recommendations emerge. These measures need to be implemented to ensure that frontline providers have proper training to diagnose and treat TD and continue to preserve the fighting strength of military personnel. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease affecting over 200 million individuals, with the majority of those affected in Africa.

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