The main transfer of infection to humans is via poultry products

The main transfer of infection to humans is via poultry products. The goal of this work was to study the

role of Salmonella in artificially infected chickens onto the outcome of clinical campylobacteriosis. It is certain that salmonella infection in poultry damages the immune system of chickens, enabling Campylobacter to multiply and subsequently induce a disease. Three groups of chickens were included in the experiment. The first group received a suspension of field strain of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis S. Enteritidis). The second group received an inoculum prepared from the field isolate of Campylobacter jejuni and the third group received Selleckchem Stattic the field isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, only.\n\nIn artificially infected chickens Campylobacter and Salmonella were confirmed by isolation and identification according to morphological, cultural and biochemical properties. Humoral immune response of infected chickens was monitored using the complement fixation test (CFT). In chickens infected with C. jejuni and S. Enteritidis the clinical symptoms were recorded. The results from this experiment show that salmonella infection damages the immune system of the chickens enabling

Campylobacter to alter the health status of the host.”
“Background: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage

but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster BMS-777607 datasheet victims and workers, as well as the criticism Selleckchem Linsitinib from the public due to their company’s post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). Methods: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. Results: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted beta, 0.66; p smaller than 0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted beta, 0.67; p smaller than 0.001). PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p smaller than 0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.

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