rs3027580 (NG_007119 1:g 4292G>C), and two SNPs in the GLA 5′-

rs3027580 (NG_007119.1:g.4292G>C), and two SNPs in the GLA 5′-untranslated region, rs2071225 (NM_000169.2:c.-10C>T) and rs3027585 (NM_000169.2:c.-12G>A), were identified with similar frequencies in sporadic PD patients and healthy controls. A novel variant (NG_007119.1:g.4488C>G) within the promoter region, at the 573 site upstream of the translation start codon (ATG), was found in one male PD patient, but not in female PD patients or healthy controls. Our data suggest that the sequence variant may affect GLA gene expression selleck compound by altering transcription

factor binding sites, contributing to the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We derive an analytical expression of the second virial coefficient of d-dimensional hard sphere fluids confined to slit pores by applying Speedy and Reiss’ interpretation of cavity space. We confirm that this coefficient is identical to the one obtained from the Mayer cluster expansion up to second order with respect to fugacity. The key step of both approaches is to evaluate either the surface area or the volume of the d-dimensional exclusion sphere confined to a slit pore. We, further, present an analytical form of thermodynamic functions

such as entropy and pressure tensor as a function of the size of the slit pore. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for d = 2 and d = 3, and the results are compared with

analytically obtained equations of state. They agree satisfactorily in the low density regime, and, for click here given density, the agreement of the results becomes excellent as the width of the slit pore gets smaller, because the higher order virial coefficients become unimportant. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3564917]“
“P>Background\n\nWe lack population-based estimates of the rate of decompensation in people with compensated cirrhosis as well as estimates of the manner in which AZD8186 the disease progresses once identified.\n\nAim\n\nTo determine the rate of decompensation and clinical progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis based upon clinical symptoms recorded electronically in general practice data.\n\nMethods\n\nUsing Cox proportional hazards regression, we modelled the rate of decompensation for patients from the UK General Practice Research Database with a diagnosis of cirrhosis between 1987 and 2002. We determined the clinical progression in the first year following diagnosis and subsequently categorizing patients through time according to a simple clinical staging system agreed at the Baveno IV consensus conference.\n\nResults\n\nThe rate of decompensation in patients with compensated cirrhosis was found to be 11% overall. The rate of decompensation was higher in the first year (at 31% compared with 7.3% afterwards) and in patients with an alcoholic aetiology.

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