These cases were confirmed by serology at the Basel’s Swiss Tropi

These cases were confirmed by serology at the Basel’s Swiss Tropical Institute (Dr Hanspeter Marti, personal communication). Detailed epidemiological and clinical data of these patients are not available, but at least four of these cases were

diagnosed in immigrants from Africa, southeast Asia, and the Balkans. Reliable information on human Trichinella infection is not uniformly collected in Europe.1 In most European countries reporting see more of this infection is done on a voluntary basis and the information is fragmentary. In Germany, Italy, and Austria only the sylvatic cycle exists. Reliable epidemiological data from other Central European countries are Ponatinib price not available. Sporadic infections occur among people after consumption of wild boars. In Germany, the only country where trichinellosis is a reportable disease, in the period of 1996–2006, 95 human cases were diagnosed and 12 outbreaks were reported.6 The relationship between this parasitosis and displacement of the population is essential to characterize the dynamics of transmission

of the disease outside of endemic areas. In Switzerland, the foreign population constitutes 19% of the resident population and, since the 1970s, the percentage of immigrants from Eastern Europe has increased. More than 250,000 of these immigrants originate from the former Yugoslavia7 where Trichinella sp. infection is quite common in domestic pigs and wild animals.8 In nonendemic countries of Europe, trichinellosis has been documented in immigrants from endemic countries when they return home for holidays (Table 1).6,9,10–15 Furthermore, trichinellosis has been also documented in travelers anti-PD-1 antibody inhibitor who visited endemic countries.16 In a study on eosinophilia among German tourists returning home from countries endemic for Trichinella sp. infection, Schulte et al.16 show that

1.2% of them were infected with Trichinella sp. This percentage is significantly higher among migrant populations from highly endemic areas visiting their relatives.6 Since the incubation period of trichinellosis can be highly variable (from few days up to 2–3 wk), the travel history is very important especially in nonendemic countries where physicians are not familiar with the clinical picture of trichinellosis. Furthermore, there are objective difficulties for migrants to access the health care system because of language barriers, cultural and legislative constraints.17 In addition to persons who acquire trichinellosis abroad and develop the disease at home, Trichinella sp. infections have also been documented among people of nonendemic countries who consumed infected meat (eg, pork from domestic pigs and wild boars, horse meat, bear meat) clandestinely imported from endemic countries as a gift to friends and relatives.

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