Judgments generally pervade any assessment of risk, including the definition of outcomes that matter, the breadth of the effects to be considered, and measures of consequences. For example, epidemiological evidence is generally too broad to apply
to every location that a traveler is going to and it changes over time or may even be out of date. Judgments therefore need to be made in the risk assessment. Recently published data by Rossi and colleagues reinforce the degree of uncertainty that exists in the pre-travel risk assessment, which must also be managed. This is also compounded by travelers who may only know the general location where they are planning to visit, with the general notion of finding their own way once they arrive or travelers who like the freedom to try new things not knowing what they may be before departure. Travelers’ responses to pre-travel advice
are influenced by MK0683 molecular weight their perceptions of risk, familiarity and concerns about treatments, and the preferred risk management strategies. In risk perception, travelers may confound the likelihood and severity of outcomes, and also tend to be influenced by attributes Tofacitinib concentration of the hazard apart from its actual consequences. Familiarity, visibility, and controllability of a hazard all influence the perception of risk. Understanding of the perceptions as well as the reality of risk in travel can help travel health advisers to better prepare travelers for safer and healthier travel. The presence of preexisting knowledge and beliefs about diseases and treatments, and their socio-cultural contexts, will already Elongation factor 2 kinase be shaping travelers’ perceptions of risk and how they might engage with pre-travel health advice. Noble and colleagues describe various conceptual frameworks, which can be helpful in defining travelers’ responses to risks. One concerns people’s perception of risk and their own ability to respond to it. Research into health beliefs has shown that people’s likelihood of taking action in response to a perceived
threat to their health is determined by their perceptions of: ‘The severity of the threat’ Their susceptibility to the threat The risks, costs, and benefits of taking action ‘Their own ability to successfully undertake the required action. Furthermore, travelers are more likely to act to avoid a health threat if they intend to take action following their consideration of the threat, and if there are cues to prompt the behavior closer to the time. Noble and colleagues suggest that there is evidence that travelers’ adherence to the recommendations may be related to their health beliefs and intentions, but also that these can be influenced by pre-travel advice. In this issue, Zimmermann and colleagues explore travelers’ perception of risk pre- and post travel and compare this to experts.