Although decreased DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) predicts trait-like impulsivity in rats it is unclear whether this neurochemical marker extends to both the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) and whether markers for other neurotransmitter systems implicated in impulsivity such as serotonin (5-HT), endogenous opioids and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) are likewise altered in impulsive rats. We therefore used autoradiography to investigate DA transporter (DAT), 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D1, D2/D3, μ-opioid and GABA(A) receptor binding in selected regions of the prefrontal cortex and striatum in rats expressing low and high impulsive behaviour on the Gefitinib five-choice serial reaction-time task.
High-impulsive (HI) rats exhibited significantly lower binding for DAT and D2/D3 receptors in the NAcbS and for D1 receptors in the NAcbC compared with low-impulsive (LI) rats.
HI rats also showed significantly lower GABA(A) receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex. For all regions where receptor binding was altered click here in HI rats, binding was inversely correlated with impulsive responding on task. There were no significant differences in binding for 5-HTT or μ-opioid receptors in any of the regions investigated. These results indicate that altered D2/D3 receptor binding is localised to the NAcbS of trait-like impulsive rats and is accompanied by reduced binding for DAT. Alterations in binding for D1 receptors in the NAcbC and GABA(A) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex
demonstrate additional markers and putative mechanisms underlying the expression of behavioural impulsivity. “
“Although there is increasing knowledge about how visual Baricitinib and tactile cues from the hands are integrated, little is known about how self-generated hand movements affect such multisensory integration. Visuo-tactile integration often occurs under highly dynamic conditions requiring sensorimotor updating. Here, we quantified visuo-tactile integration by measuring cross-modal congruency effects (CCEs) in different bimanual hand movement conditions with the use of a robotic platform. We found that classical CCEs also occurred during bimanual self-generated hand movements, and that such movements lowered the magnitude of visuo-tactile CCEs as compared to static conditions. Visuo-tactile integration, body ownership and the sense of agency were decreased by adding a temporal visuo-motor delay between hand movements and visual feedback. These data show that visual stimuli interfere less with the perception of tactile stimuli during movement than during static conditions, especially when decoupled from predictive motor information. The results suggest that current models of visuo-tactile integration need to be extended to account for multisensory integration in dynamic conditions. “
“Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful tool to induce and measure plasticity in the human brain.