2c and d). These phylotypes may represent thermophiles
as supported by the optimum growth temperature estimation based on the GC content of the 16S rRNA gene (Kimura et al., 2007) and the physiology of the cultured members. The optimum growth temperatures estimated for the phylotypes related to Vulcanisaeta, Thermocladium and Metallosphaera are 94.6, 79.0 and 76.8 °C, respectively. These estimates are compatible with the optimum growth temperatures of members of each genus (Huber et al., 1989; Itoh et al., 1998, 2002). The optimum growth temperatures for the phylotypes related to UTSCG and UTRCG are estimated to be 58.0 and 61.0 °C. These phylotypes related to cultured (hyper)thermophiles, UTSCG and UTRCG that were detected in the mud Dabrafenib concentration sample may be remnant DNA SCH772984 solubility dmso that originated from the higher temperature environments
as described above. In contrast, the optimum growth temperatures estimated for the TRG-I to IV phylotypes detected are 36.8, 38.6, 45.0 and 46.0 °C, respectively. These temperatures are relatively comparable to the low temperature of the solfataric mud environment. Overall, the archaeal community structure represented in the HO28S9 library is more consistent with the environment than that represented in the HO28S21 library. More archaeal phylotypes are likely to be obtained in acidic spring fields using the primer set Arc9F–Uni1406R than using the set Arch21F–Arch958R, based on comparative analysis of the archaeal phylotypes obtained Vildagliptin with the two primer sets. The number of phylotypes observed was larger in HO28S9 than HO28S21 (Table 1), even though the total number of clones was very similar in each library. Accordingly, the number of unique phylotypes found in the HO28S9 library was more than those in HO28S21 (Fig. S4). The analysis of the Chao1 richness estimators of shared phylotypes suggests that the phylotypes in the HO28S9 library would cover all phylotypes in HO28S21 (Fig. S4) if the coverage of the clone library for each primer set had reached 100% of the total archaeal phylotypes. Modification of the primer sequence of the Arch21F to Arc9F
was expected to match more phylotypes (Fig. 1). In addition to the M. jannaschii position 21 as described above, the modification at positions 5 and 9 may have also contributed to the increased efficiency of hybridization and amplification (Fig. 5). Furthermore, the reverse primers used may contribute to efficient amplification. In fact, the sequences of some phylotypes that were recovered using Arc9F–Uni1406R have mismatches to the primer sequence of Arch958R at the position targeted by this reverse primer (Fig. S3). We conclude that a more diverse archaeal community in acidic environments at a low temperature was revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone library construction using the Arc9F–Uni1406R primer set. Fig. S1. Photos of the sampling points. Fig. S2. Rarefaction curves for each clone library. Fig. S3.