pylori within 30 minutes after adherence as compared to the unadhered control (Fig. 1). In AGS-adhered H. pylori, cagA expression increased progressively up to 24 hours examined; however, vacA expression increased immediately after adherence and thereafter remained almost constant. No difference in ureA expression was observed between unadhered and adhered H. pylori cells (data not
shown). To examine whether any component(s) secreted by AGS cells into the medium was responsible for the induction of virulence genes in H. pylori, expression of cagA and vacA was examined in unadhered bacteria isolated from the supernatant of an H. pylori-infected AGS monolayer. Expression of the virulence genes in these bacteria was comparable to that in H. pylori grown without cell line (data not shown), suggesting that the induction of virulence genes in AGS cell-associated buy CH5424802 H. pylori was not due to any component secreted by AGS cells and the induction required direct contact of the bacteria with the AGS cells. Because the iron-sensing transcription factor Fur acts as a global regulator in H. pylori, we next examined whether Fur has a role in the contact-dependent upregulation of virulence genes in AGS-adhered H. pylori. For this purpose, two Δfur mutants were independently constructed and analyzed. Two independent mutants were used to decrease selleck chemicals llc the possibility of erroneous results due to unidentified spontaneous
mutations in one. The growth rates of the Δfur mutant strains were similar to the wild-type strain as has been reported previously . The wild-type parental strain and the Δfur mutant strains were allowed to adhere to AGS cells for 2 hours, and CFU of the adhered bacteria was determined. Adherence of the two independently isolated H. pylori Δfur mutants to AGS cell line was comparable to that of the wild-type strain (Table S2). Next, expression of cagA and vacA in the adhered wild-type strain and two Δfur mutants was examined and compared with that in the corresponding unadhered strains isolated from the supernatant of infected AGS monolayers. Expression of cagA and vacA in unadhered bacteria was comparable between the wild-type and the Δfur mutant strains (Fig. 2).
PLEKHB2 Interestingly, however, although cagA and vacA expression increased about 5.5- and 3.5-fold, respectively, after adherence of the wild-type H. pylori to the AGS cells, much lower upregulation of cagA (about 2.5-fold) and practically no upregulation of vacA were observed in AGS-adhered Δfur mutant strains (Fig. 2). These results suggest that the upregulation of cagA and vacA upon contact with AGS cells was dependent on Fur, and the effect of Fur was significantly higher in adhered H. pylori than in the unadhered bacteria. Helicobacter pylori Fur can activate or repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo (apo-Fur) forms. In view of the fact that expression of cagA and vacA is upregulated in a Fur-dependent manner in AGS cell-associated H.